Forgotten Diseases Research Foundation


Postnatal Growth


The curves in this section were prepared from data in a pan-European study published in 2012 (1). The authors developed two sets of height-for-age charts for use throughout Europe. One set is for southern Europe and the other is for northern Europe. The charts were made by combining data from different national growth studies.

The curves and tables in the paper show height in standard deviations (-2.5 to +2.5). We have created curves with percentile values from 1 to 99. We have also included a copy of the data tables from the paper here. The file is in .doc format. The entire paper may be downloaded via the link the in the references section on this page.

Northern Europe

The charts for northern Europe were made from data from the following countries:

  • Belgium
  • Czech Republic
  • Estonia
  • Germany
  • Lithuania
  • The Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Sweden

Southern Europe

The charts for southern Europe were made from data from the following countries:

  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Spain

Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome (TS) is a condition that affects only girls. Its most common sign is short stature, which occurs in in 100% of cases. Girls with TS are smaller than most infants at birth, and they fall off the growth charts quickly. Without treatment, the average adult woman with TS is only 4 feet 8 inches tall, but girls who receive growth hormones may grow to the low end of the normal height range. Girls with TS also need estrogen therapy to help them develop physically, and they may have to continue taking it as adults. Fertility problems are very common in TS. In many cases, they are due to an underdeveloped or absent uterus and abnormalities with the ovaries. However, this problem is not universal, and some women with TS can become pregnant with assistance from reproductive therapy. Heart problems, kidney problems, and thyroid problems are also common in TS. Overall intelligence in most girls and women with TS is usually normal, but some people may have problems with math and manual dexterity. In addition, and in childhood especially, relations with other children may be challenging due to poor social skills.

TS is caused by a damaged or missing X chromosome. It is the most common sex chromosome disorder in females, with estimates that one girl in 2,500 has TS. For more information about TS in English, visit our Turner syndrome web page or the Turner Syndrome pages of the Mayo Clinic.

Growth Curves

A 1985 study obtained data on growth in Turner syndrome from four studies of 459 girls throughout Europe (2). The girls came from Germany, Finland, France, and the UK. None had been treated with growth hormones. The authors found that the girls from the UK were somewhat smaller than the other girls until adulthood, when there was effectively no difference in height.

Numerous curves have been made from this data; we have linked to one made by Genentech, which is appropriate for use in the clinic.


  1. 1. Bonthuis M et al. (2012) Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts. PLoS One 7(8):e45206. Full text on PubMed.
  2. 2. Lyon AJ et al. (1985) Growth curve for girls with Turner syndrome. Arch Dis Child 60:932-935. Full text on PubMed.
Page last modified on 16 June 2020.