Forgotten Diseases Research Foundation


Postnatal Growth

The PDF files in this section were created from data in a study about growth patterns in Turkish children and adolescents (1). The authors used data from pre-school and school-aged children in Istanbul and made an average of ~8 measurements per child in the preschoolers and ~6 per child in the older children. Some data from this study was also published in English (2). The English study does not have percentile data tables.

Head Circumference
Body Mass Index (BMI)

Down Syndrome

A recent study examined 1,726 children (736 girls, 990 boys) with Down syndrome (3). The children were born between 1980 and 2010 and followed from birth to 18 years. Their growth pattern was impaired from birth to adolescensce, and was particularly so from 6 months to 3 years and at puberty. Longitudinal measurements of height, weight and head circumference were accessed and growth curves were derived using the LMS method. The curves in the paper provide percentile values from the 3rd-97th centiles as follows:

  • Height, Birth to 3 Years (Boys, Girls)
  • Height, 3 to 18 Years (Boys, Girls)
  • Weight, Birth to 3 Years (Boys, Girls)
  • Weight, 3 to 18 Years (Boys, Girls)
  • Head Circumference, Birth to 3 Years (Boys, Girls)
  • Head Circumference, 3 to 18 Years (Boys, Girls)

Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome (TS) is a condition that affects only girls. Its most common sign is short stature, which occurs in in 100% of cases. Girls with TS are smaller than most infants at birth, and they fall off the growth charts quickly. Without treatment, the average adult woman with TS is only 4 feet 8 inches tall, but girls who receive growth hormones may grow to the low end of the normal height range. Girls with TS also need estrogen therapy to help them develop physically, and they may have to continue taking it as adults. Fertility problems are very common in TS. In many cases, they are due to an underdeveloped or absent uterus and abnormalities with the ovaries. However, this problem is not universal, and some women with TS can become pregnant with assistance from reproductive therapy. Heart problems, kidney problems, and thyroid problems are also common in TS. Overall intelligence in most girls and women with TS is usually normal, but some people may have problems with math and manual dexterity. In addition, and in childhood especially, relations with other children may be challenging due to poor social skills.

TS is caused by a damaged or missing X chromosome. It is the most common sex chromosome disorder in females, with estimates that one girl in 2,500 has TS. For more information about TS in English, visit our Turner syndrome web page or the Turner syndrome information pages at Boston Children's Hospital or the Turner Syndrome pages of the Mayo Clinic.

Growth curves

The curves belows were made from longitudinal data on 842 girls with Turner syndrome who attended 35 different clinics throughout Turkey (4). Data came from measurements made between 1984 and 2014. The diagnosis of TS had been confirmed by laboratory testing.


  1. 1. Neyzi O et al. (2008) Body mass, height, head circumference, and body mass index reference values in Turkish children. (Türk çocuklarinda vücut agirligi, boy uzunlugu, bas çevresi ve vücut kitle indeksi referans degerleri.) Çocuk Sagligi ve Hastaliklari Dergisi 51:1-14. Full text. Abstract in English.
  2. 2. Gökçay G. et al. (2008) Updated growth curves for Turkish children aged 15 days to 60 months. Child Care Health Dev 34(4):454-463. Abstract on PubMed.
  3. 3. Tüysüz B et al. (2012) Growth charts of Turkish children with Down syndrome. Am J Med Genet Part A 158A(11):2656-2664. Full text from publisher.
  4. 4. Darendeliler F et al. (2015) Growth curves for turkish girls with Turner syndrome: results of the Turkish Turner syndrome study group. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol7(3):183-191. Full text on PubMed.

Page last modified on 18 April 2022.