Forgotten Diseases Research Foundation


Postnatal Growth

National Charts

The charts in this section were downloaded from the the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (Società Italiana di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia Pediatrica or SIEDP). They were created in 2006 from data on ~70,000 Italian children and adolescents aged 2-20 years. Two studies related were published: one reported on ~14,000 children between the ages of 2 and 5 years (1), and the other reported on ~55,000 children and adolescents aged 6-20 years (2). These charts can be used for children from all parts of Italy.

Height and Weight

Regional Charts

The authors of the two studies noted above divided subjects into two groups: children from Central-North Italy and children from South Italy. This division reflects a variety differences between people in these two regions of the country, including include genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, and dietary factors. Separate growth charts were made for each group. Children not of Italian ancestry were not included in these samples.

Central-North Italy

These charts were made from measurements of ~35,000 children and adolescents in the following areas:

  • Emilia-Romana
  • Piedmont
  • Lazio
  • Liguria
  • Lombardy
  • Marche
  • Tuscany
  • Umbria
  • Veneto
Height and Weight
South Italy

These charts were made from measurements of ~35,000 children and adolescents in the following areas:

  • Abruzzo
  • Molise
  • Campania
  • Puglia
  • Calabria
  • Sicily
  • Sardinia
Height and Weight

Size at Birth by Gestational Age

The curves in this section were created from data tables made as part of a national study of size at birth in Italy (3). Data was obtained from ~45,500 babies born in 34 centers throughout Italy in 2005-2007. The infants were singletons without major congenital problems. Both parents were of Italian origin. The charts have data from 23 to 42 weeks. They also distinguish between firstborn children and subsequent children. Weight at birth was most affected by birth order.



Head Circumference

Cri du Chat Syndrome

The curves in this section were created by the Association for Children with Cri du Chat (ABC in Italian). Data came from an international study of growth in children with Cri du Chat syndrome (4). The curves here were created by ABC; the site notes that its publications may be used for non-profit purposes. We have translated them so that non-Italian speakers with children who have Cri du Chat may benefit from them.

The study obtained growth data for 374 people with CDC. They came from four countries:

  • United States: 167 patients
  • Italy: 150 patients
  • United Kingdom: 47 patients
  • Australia: 10 patients

Patients who came from the United States were Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African-American. Patients from the other nations were primarily Caucasian.

The first file linked to below has information about Cri du Chat syndrome as well as growth curves. The curves are on pages 23 to 32. There is also a chart of psychomotor development in Cri du Chat patients (page 33), as well as guidelines for treatment (page 34).

Cri du Chat syndrome: information and growth Curves (English)

Growth Curves for Cri du Chat syndrome (Italian)



Head Circumference

Down Syndrome

A growth study was performed on healthy Sicilian children with Down syndrome aged 0-14 years. They were observed between 1977 and 1988, with 382 subjects (239 male and 143 female; 5). The study excluded all DS children who had serious medical problems that are associated with Down syndrome, such as congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal malformations, malabsorption, hypothyroidism, and thalassemia.

  • Height, Birth to 24 Months (Boys, Girls)
  • Height, 2 to 14 Years (Boys, Girls)
  • Weight, Birth to 24 Months (Boys, Girls)
  • Weight, 2 to 14 Years (Boys, Girls)
  • Head circumference, Birth to 24 Months (Boys, Girls)
  • Head circumference, 2 to 14 Years (Boys, Girls)

Growth curves for Down Syndrome

Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MoWS) is a genetic disorder. One of the most common problems in people with MoWS is Hirschsprung disease, in which nerves are missing from muscles controlling the colon., Chronic constipation is a result. People with MoWS also have delays in speech development and gross motor skills, intellectual disabilities, epilepsy, and eye problems, among other things. They tend to be small, as well.

A recent study examined growth in 99 people with MoWS and produced centile curves for height, weight, head circumference, and BMI (6). The study is included children from 20 nations who had been born between 1986 and 2016. It is available free of charge, and includes charts for boys and for girls.

Growth curves for Mowat-WIlson Syndrome

Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Neurofibromatosis (or NF) is one name for a number of different disorders. The most common form is called NF1, and it accounts for 90% of NF cases. NF1 occurs once in roughly 2,500 to 4,000 births. Two other forms of NF are NF2 and Schwannomatosis. Other rarer forms exist (NF3, NF4, NF5 and NFNS). These forms are much rarer than NF1, and happen once in every 40,000 births.

NF causes the growth of tumors called neurofibromas. The term neurofibroma means that the tumors grow along nerves (neuro) and are made of fibrous connective tissue (fibroma). The tumors can become malignant (that is, cancerous). They can also make bumps under the skin, cause problems in the skeleton (scoliosis is an example), and put pressure on nerve roots. Children with NF1 may go through puberty early. For a short but good review of NF, visit the Tumour Foundation of British Columbia.

The curves below were made from a study of 528 NF1 patients (251 males and 277 females). The paper is freely available and gives curves for height, height velocity, weight and head circumference in patients aged 2-19 years (7).

Growth charts for Neurofibromatosis Type 1


  1. 1. Cacciari E et al (2006) Italian cross-sectional growth charts for height, weight and BMI (2 to 20 yr). J Endocrinol Invest. 56(2):171-180. Abstract on PubMed. Full text.
  2. 2. Cacciari E et al (2002) Italian cross-sectional growth charts for height, weight and BMI (6-20 y). Eur J Clin Nutr. 56(2):171-80. Full text from publisher
  3. 3. Bertino E. et al. (2010) Neonatal anthropometric charts: the Italian neonatal study compared with other European studies. J Ped Gast Nutr 51(3): 353-361. Abstract on PubMed.
  4. 4. Marinescu R.C. et al. (2000) Growth charts for cri-du-chat syndrome: an international collaborative study. Am J Med Gen 94:153-162. Abstract on PubMed.
  5. 5. Piro E et al. (1990) Growth charts of Down syndrome in Sicily: evaluation of 382 children 0-14 years of age. Am J Med Genet Suppl 7:66-70. Abstract on PubMed.     Full text from publisher.
  6. 6. Ivanovski I et al. (2020) Mowat-Wilson syndrome: growth charts. Orphanet J Rare Dis 15:151   doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01418-4 Full text from publisher.
  7. 7. Clementi M et al. (1999) Neurofibromatosis type 1 growth charts. Am J Med Genet 87:317-323. Abstract on PubMed.     Full text from publisher.

Page last modified on 2 March 2021.